Beginner’s Guide to the TOEFL Independent Essay

This guide is actually for low-level students writing their TOEFL that is first independent. Advanced students may wish to skip right to our advanced guide.

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The experiment used five versions of a website made for this research.


The participants were 51 experienced Web users recruited by Sun (average level of Web experience was a couple of years). Participants ranged in age from 22-69 (average age was 41). So as to give attention to « normal users, » we excluded the following professions from the study: webmasters, Web designers, graphic artists, graphical user interface professionals, writers, editors, computer scientists, and computer programmers.

We checked for results of age and Web experience on the dependent variables mentioned in the first five hypotheses, but we found only negligible differences-none significant. Lire la suite